More stories

  • in

    Studio Vural reinterprets Japanese interiors for Warren Street Townhouse

    New York City architecture firm Studio Vural used Kyoto merchant houses as a reference point when renovating the interiors of this Brooklyn townhouse for a couple.

    A trip to the Japanese city in 2009 left such an impact on the clients that Studio Vural decided to adapt and update elements of the traditional minimalist architecture for the interiors of the Warren Street Townhouse.
    The townhouse renovation involved adding plenty of storage using European oak”Our design is the embodiment of an early memory our clients experienced as a young couple in Kyoto, an experience so powerful and authentic, that it found its way to a new reality in Brooklyn through our imagination,” said studio founder Selim Vural.
    The four-storey building was overhauled to create a rental apartment at the garden level, leaving the upper three floors for the clients to live in.
    A dining nook was created at the back of the parlour level, behind the staircaseWith a total of 3,200 square feet (300 square metres), the project involved reorganising rooms while bringing in contemporary renditions of traditional Japanese home features, such as a sunken hearth, folding and sliding screens, and undulating soffits.

    “[We] studied Kyoto houses’ serene interior emptiness, flow of asymmetrical spaces, rhythm of tatami mats and the placement of courtyards to make that interpretation possible,” Vural said.
    The nook is based on a recessed space in Japanese reception rooms known as a tokonomaAt parlour level, where the main entrance is located, the plan was opened up so the living and kitchen spaces flow together.
    Exposed brick walls were painted white, creating a blank canvas onto which a variety of light-toned European oak elements were placed.
    Traditional Japanese home features like a sunken hearth, folding and sliding screens, and undulating soffits were interpreted with a contemporary twistThe custom wooden furniture includes a window seat and a sofa. Both feature built-in storage, as well as a range of cabinets and shelves that run along one wall and incorporate a bar.
    Oak boards wer also laid across the floor to create homogeneity throughout the open-plan space.
    The staircase is enclosed by wooden slats and incorporates limestone platforms for displaying objectsAt the back of this level, the kitchen area is framed by a concrete-topped breakfast bar and includes a dining nook – based on a recessed space in Japanese reception rooms known as a tokonoma – tucked in behind the staircase.
    The stairs are enclosed by slatted oak screens, and the first seven treads are widened thanks to beige limestone slabs that act as platforms for displaying objects.
    The simple white and oak palette is continued in the bedroomsThree bedrooms and two bathrooms can be found on the storey above, while a further two bedrooms and a bathroom are located on the top floor.
    All of these rooms continue the same simple white and oak palette, and character is added by exposing the original wood ceiling beams.

    Civilian reorganises Bed-Stuy Townhouse to create family-friendly layout

    The upper level also includes a lounge area, where the historic vertical columns are also made a feature.
    Skylights were added to bring more natural light into the centre of the long, narrow space, which reaches the windowless hallway below through a glass panel in the floor.
    A glass partition between the primary bedroom and bathroom helps the spaces to feel larger”Our work at the Warren House Townhouse powerfully demonstrates architecture’s capacity to cast distant memories into contemporary forms, revitalise historic typologies,” said Vural. “It is a prime example of a historic building’s rebirth for a new family in the history of Brooklyn.”
    Much of Brooklyn’s townhouse stock has been bought up and renovated over the past few years, after homeowners jumped at the opportunity for extra space compared to nearby Manhattan.
    Sklylights bring natural light into a lounge on the upper level and down through a glass panel in the floor to a windowless hallwayRecently completed examples include a passive house that features a dramatic cedar screen and a project that took its architect owners 17 years to complete.
    Studio Vural, which is based in the borough, has previously released images of a speculative off-grid house in the dunes of Cape Cod and a vision for a mixed-use Manhattan skyscraper covered with Asian lilies.
    The photography is by Kate Glicksberg.
    Project credits:
    Principal architect: Selim VuralProject architect: Rima AskinDesign team member: Angela TsaveskaEngineering: Ilya VeldshteynConstruction: David Nahm

    Read more: More

  • in

    TPG Architecture creates “memorable moments” within NHL Headquarters in Manhattan

    Bold graphics and a tall media wall are among the features in the TPG Architecture-designed home office for North America’s National Hockey League, which spans five floors in a new skyscraper.

    The project is located in One Manhattan West, a glazed, 67-storey tower designed by SOM. The building is part of an emerging mixed-use development atop railroad tracks in the city’s Far West Side district.
    Bold graphics define the office interior by TPG ArchitectureThe NHL occupies floors 23 through 27, encompassing a total of 160,000 square feet (14,864 square metres). About 600 employees work in the office.
    Local firm TPG Architecture – which has designed several NHL projects since the 1990s – aimed to create a flexible and high-functioning work environment that captures the spirit of the professional ice hockey league.
    The project intends to capture the spirit of the ice hockey league”We set out to develop a connected, tech-enabled workplace that showcases the NHL’s commitment to its players, fans and employees,” the architecture studio said.

    “The result is an inspiring office that features memorable moments throughout, immersing both staff members and their guests into the League’s culture.”
    One Manhattan West skyscraper provides the setting for the headquartersThe league was started in 1917 and consists of 32 member clubs – 25 in the US and seven in Canada. The organisation was formerly based in a tower on Sixth Avenue in Manhattan.
    The new headquarters encompasses a range of spaces, including private offices, open workspaces, meeting rooms, media suites, social areas and a cafeteria that doubles as a “town hall”. The main entry and executive suite are on the 27th level.
    Interior finishes include concrete flooring and beige carpetingTo unify the different areas, the team used a black-and-white scheme with pops of colour – a move inspired by the NHL’s logo, which consists of a monochromatic shield.
    Interior finishes include concrete flooring, beige carpeting and warm-toned wood.
    Floors are connected by a feature staircaseFloors are connected by a feature staircase lined with an 18-foot-tall (5.5-metre) media wall. Games, graphics, social media feeds and staff announcements are showcased on the wall.
    NHL memorabilia is found throughout the headquarters, including a wall with pucks signed by players, a partition made of hockey sticks, and a corridor lined with uniforms from the league’s member clubs.
    An etching of the Stanley Cup features within the buildingOne area features a freestanding glass pane with an etching of the Stanley Cup trophy.
    “This area is great for visiting players to come in and take part in media interviews and other content-capturing activities,” the team said.

    LOHA utilizes “material layering” for Nike Icon Studios building in Los Angeles

    The work zones offer plenty of opportunities for group activities, which was somewhat lacking in the league’s former headquarters.
    “We interspersed more collaborative environments to boost productivity,” the team said.
    “Huddle booths, whiteboards with tabletop seating, and informal lounge areas are found throughout the office.”
    Various other spaces are included within the headquartersOther spaces in the headquarters include a Player Safety Area, where games are monitored in real-time and video clips are created for disciplinary review. The office also has a newsroom, broadcasting studio and editing suites.
    TPG Architecture was founded in 1979 and is based in New York City. Its extensive portfolio of office projects includes the conversion of a former tobacco factory in North Carolina into an advertising agency.
    The photography is by Eric Laignel.

    Read more: More

  • in

    Space Exploration Design gives Bar Americano in Brooklyn a time-worn feel

    Distressed plaster, exposed brick and mahogany millwork at this cocktail bar in Greenpoint were chosen by Space Exploration Design to “give the impression that it’s always been there”.

    Bar Americano opened recently on the corner of a landmarked residential building on Franklin Avenue – a bustling yet not overrun thoroughfare in north Brooklyn.
    The U-shaped counter at Bar Americano provides seating on three sidesServing cocktails, aperitifs and small plates, the bar is designed with an intentionally worn-in appearance to integrate with the fabric of the neighbourhood.
    “The directive that the ownership team of Bar Americano gave to Space Exploration Design was to create a neighborhood bar that gives the impression that it’s always been there,” said the studio, run by designer Kevin Greenberg. “[We] chose a palette of mostly warm, neutral materials with natural finishes that will patina gracefully over time.”
    Mahogany millwork forms the back bar, which incorporates sconces decorated with abstract floral patternsThe bar itself is located in the centre of the space, with a U-shaped counter surrounded by wooden stools on three sides.

    Behind, a mahogany cabinet displays a wide range of liquor bottles, and a vintage clock is affixed near the top.
    Seating nooks are tucked into corners away from the standing roomAlso embedded into the millwork are a pair of gilded sconces decorated with abstract floral patterns, created by Blaser Finishing, which also completed the plasterwork across the walls.
    Tight tambour panels clad the front of the bar counter and the lower half of partitions, and fluted glass continues the same vertical accentuation above.

    Usonian architecture informs Sereneco restaurant in Greenpoint by Carpenter + Mason

    “To emphasise the simple, honest approach to the cocktails, Space Exploration employed a restrained detailing language throughout. A strong sense of verticality provides the perfect complement to Bar Americano’s delicate glassware,” the studio said.
    Cosy seating nooks with leather upholstery of different sizes are snuggled into corners and window bays, away from the standing room.
    A raised seating area is set against an exposed brick wallA larger area with two-top tables is raised a few steps up, set against an exposed brick wall.
    Decorative tin tiles covering the ceiling were painted matte white, while brass was chosen for lighting fixtures, coat hooks and other hardware details.
    Distressed plaster walls and tin ceiling tiles add to the bar’s worn-in appearanceBar Americano joins several design-forward food and drink spaces in Greenpoint, including the Sereneco restaurant informed by Usonian architecture and the plant-filled Vietnamese eatery Di An Di.
    Other cocktail bars in NYC that have recently opened include the Upstairs lounge at Public Records in Gowanus and the rooftop bar at the Moxy Lower East Side hotel.
    The photography is by Alice Gao.

    Read more: More

  • in

    Dumbo Loft by Crystal Sinclair Designs features a book-filled mezzanine

    Interiors studio Crystal Sinclair Designs has renovated a loft apartment in Brooklyn’s Dumbo neighbourhood to include a mezzanine with a wall of books and a bedroom behind a glass partition.

    Upstate New York studio Crystal Sinclair Designs overhauled the space for a well-travelled lawyer and writer.
    The loft’s high ceilings enabled a mezzanine library to be addedThe client purchased the loft during the early Covid-19 pandemic in Dumbo, an area that has seen extensive conversion of buildings into luxury apartments.
    Sinclair’s aim was to retain the industrial look of the space, while incorporating a mix of furnishings that offer a European flair and nod to some of the locations where her client has spent time.
    Crystal Sinclair Designs retained the industrial materials and kept surfaces bright”[She] wanted to incorporate certain elements that are representative of the places she’s lived and worked before,” Sinclair said.

    “To that end, we worked in a nuristani mirror and a tribal qashqai rug purchased in Afghanistan, a statement chandelier from Italy, and her entire and not insubstantial library.”
    In the kitchen area, arabascato marble contrasts a farmhouse-style islandThe concrete shell was largely left exposed, balanced with antique pieces like an easel and a leather wingback chair to add more story and a “lived-in” feel.
    “The space itself led the way,” said Sinclair, who founded her eponymous studio with her husband, Ben. “The idea was to draw attention to the high ceilings with floor-to-ceiling drapes and a metal/glass partition wall. As the space is bright, we decided to paint everything white.”
    Floor-to-ceiling glass panels divide the living space and the bedroomThe 1,190-square-foot (110-square-metre) apartment features a concrete coffered ceiling that reaches over 14 feet (four metres).
    Thanks to this height, an L-shaped mezzanine could be added to provide a space to store the client’s book collection.
    One wall is covered in wooden battens that create a relief patternA ladder beside a window provides access to the upper level, where bookshelves displaying the extensive library almost cover the whole wall.
    Underneath are a row of tall cabinets, and the kitchen that features slabs of white and grey arabascato marble that contrasts a wooden farmhouse-style island.
    The eclectic selection of furniture was chosen to help give the space a lived-in feelIn the living room, a cream boucle sofa is paired with a Moroccan rug, while a giant crystal chandelier hangs overhead.
    The corner bedroom is partitioned from the rest of the space by floor-to-ceiling glass panels housed within black metal frames.

    Andrea Leung conceals “secret spaces” within renovated Tribeca Loft

    A white linen curtain can be pulled across to obscure the neutral-toned sleeping area from view. A desk also runs the length of a wall, for the client to use on the days that she works from home.
    Elsewhere, original structural columns are wrapped in tiles around their lower halves, and a section of wall is covered with wood battens that create a relief pattern.
    Linen curtains can be drawn to provide privacy in the bedroom”We played with it and kept everything bright and airy,” Sinclair said. “All we needed to do was to layer in order to give the space depth and purpose.”
    Loft apartments are typified by high ceilings, large windows and expansive open floor plans, and are commonly found in former industrial neighbourhoods of Brooklyn.
    Antique pieces help to imbue the spaces with a European flairOther areas of New York City, like Tribeca, are similarly full of historic warehouses and factories that have been converted for residential use.
    In these types of buildings, recently completed projects include an apartment by Andrea Leung with “secret spaces” hidden behind a mirrored wall and a penthouse by Worrell Yeung where industrial finishes are contrasted with the “pure minimal lines” of new fittings.
    The photography is by Seth Caplan.
    Project credits:
    Interior design: Crystal Sinclair DesignsStylist: Mariana Marcki-Matos

    Read more: More

  • in

    RtA NYC store by Dan Brunn features broken crystal and red fitting rooms

    Pieces of broken crystal fill a display case that runs the length of this Manhattan boutique, completed by Los Angeles-based architect Dan Brunn for streetwear brand Road to Awe.

    The store on Mercer Street in SoHo is both the third location for Road to Awe, also known as RtA, and the third designed by Dan Brunn Architecture.
    Road to Awe’s third store by Dan Brunn is divided by a central displayFollowing outposts in West Hollywood and Las Vegas, the new 2,152-square-foot (200-square-metre) space occupies the ground floor of a historic landmarked building.
    “Honoring the more industrial nature of its surroundings, RtA Soho takes on a streamlined and contemporary approach with a raw edge directly opposing the more playful and ostentatious style of the Vegas location and serene nature of its West Coast counterpart,” said Brunn’s studio.
    The row of vitrines is filled with pieces of broken Baccarat crystalThe open floor plan is divided along the centre by a line of mirrored chrome vitrines.

    Created in collaboration with crystal brand Baccarat, the display contains 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms) of broken crystal that would have otherwise been discarded.
    Clothing is hung from suspended steel beamsEach case has an angled top to create a faceted surface, while a red glow surrounds the base of the structure.
    The crystal pieces are also back-lit, “casting rays of light throughout the store like a reverse disco ball” according to the brand.
    At the rear, a fitting room area is entirely red and illuminated with neon stripsMenswear and womenswear are displayed either side of this central axis, hung from floating horizontal blackened steel beams that help to divide the space.
    Brunn retained the original wooden flooring, but painted it in a gradient that blends from white to black towards the rear of the store.

    Delicate glass shelves illuminate Las Vegas boutique by Dan Brunn Architecture

    At the back is an entirely red area that provides access to the fitting rooms.
    A velvet-covered seating module runs down the middle of this space, flanked by repeated arches that puncture the side walls and are outlined by neon lights.
    Areas of missing brick in the fitting rooms are lined with gold leafNeon strips also traverse horizontally across the ceiling, while an LED display on the back wall plays RtA’s merchandising videos and fashion shows.
    Inside the fitting rooms, “valleys” in the existing brick wall “were sporadically filled with gold leaf paint employing the Japanese kintsugi method of embracing the beauty in imperfection”, said the studio.
    The RtA NYC store is located in a historic building on Mercer StreetBrunn’s first store for RtA opened on Melrose Avenue in 2017, followed by his boutique at the Wynn resort in Las Vegas in 2019.
    The architect has also renovated a Frank Gehry-designed house for an illustrator and designed a long slender home spanning a brook for himself.
    The photography is by Brandon Shigeta.

    Read more: More

  • in

    Upstairs lounge with “DIY” design approach opens at Public Records

    Public Records co-founders Shane Davis and Francis Harris have added a bar and lounge on an upper floor of their multi-purpose creative venue in Brooklyn.

    Upstairs is the latest addition to Public Records, which was opened in 2019 by musician Harris and creative consultant Davis, who led the design of both the original spaces and the new lounge.
    The Upstairs lounge at Public Records is anchored by a dark marble bar and glossy black floorThe extension joins a variety of programmed areas in the industrial brick building, including a cafe and record store, a plant-based bar and restaurant, an outdoor garden and a Sound Room for live performances.
    For Upstairs, Davis collaborated with DSLV Studio on the interiors, Arup for the acoustics, and a cast of makers to renovate the upper-level space – once occupied by Retrofret Vintage Guitars.
    A “DIY approach” was taken to the design of the space, which involved multiple collaborators”We felt that people would value a space that inspires more intimate connection than our other spaces,” said David. “This framework then provides opportunities to explore our ideas and showcase those of our collaborators on various scales, whether it be a sound system, a chair, an event series, or a cocktail.”

    The room is anchored by a dark, patterned marble bar, which together with the glossy black floor contrasts the mostly white walls and furniture.
    Particular attention was paid to the sound quality in the space, which includes large subwoofer speakers by OJASParticular attention was paid to the sound quality in the space, where walls are furred out and undulated to bounce music around the room from large subwoofer speakers.
    These are housed in cabinets by Devon Turnbull of OJAS and positioned against the back wall, with either side of the cabinets containing a diverse array of equipment including a reel-to-reel tape player.
    Custom furniture pieces include the PR Lounge Chair, designed with local fabricator Joe CauvelPatrons will be able to choose from a curated selection of records and CDs available to play during gatherings, events and parties.
    “Intentional listening on an audio system that showcases the practices of production in the music space allows for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the cultural significance of musicians and producers who are an integral part of how we shape our perception of the world,” said Harris.

    Public Records in historic Brooklyn building pairs vegan cafe with nightclub

    Wrapping the room are cream leather banquettes, accompanied by circular glass tables, and black ceramic and foam stools commissioned from Zurich-based artist Cristian Anderson that are reminiscent of used paint buckets.
    Also scattered through the space is the custom PR Lounge Chair, designed with local fabricator Joe Cauvel and constructed of plywood and steel with exposed joinery.
    Exposed ductwork and services found throughout the old industrial building are also present in UpstairsExposed ductwork and services found throughout the building are also present in Upstairs, which continues the same “DIY approach” taken to all of Public Records’ spaces.
    Brooklyn has no end of venues that act as community hubs, workspaces and nightlife spots geared towards its thriving creative population.
    Black ceramic and foam stools by artist Cristian Anderson are reminiscent of used paint bucketsAmong others are The Mercury Store performing arts centre in Dumbo and the 77 Washington artist studios in the Navy Yard.
    Elsewhere in New York City, creative co-working space Neuehouse recently updated its hospitality areas.
    The photography is by Ill Gander.

    Read more: More

  • in

    Remedy Place in Manhattan is designed to “bring back hospitality into healthcare”

    Sculptural decor, soft furniture and warm tones feature in this wellness centre in New York City, created by Remedy Places’ in-house team as an antidote to traditional medical facilities.

    Remedy Place is a membership-based health and wellness club situated within a 7,200-square-foot space in the Flatiron District of Manhattan.
    Remedy Place is a members wellness club in Manhattan”Our goal with every club is to bring back hospitality into healthcare and give an unparalleled experience like no other place in the world in our category,” Remedy Place cofounder Jonathan Leary told Dezeen.
    “I wanted to create a club that positively enhances your physiology from the moment you walk in the door, from the aromatic rituals to the minimalistic and balanced design, materials, layout, furniture and lighting – it all has purpose behind it.”
    The reception is centred around a potted treeAccording to Leary, the design is meant to have a positive effect on member wellness.

    “It is designed to heal,” Leary explained. “Most health spaces such as hospitals and clinics have a negative physiological effect on the body – there’s something called ‘white coat syndrome’ where your body tenses up, heart rate increases,” he said.
    “If you are not well and you enter an environment that is further having a negative impact on your body it only makes things worse,” he continued.
    “Having an understanding of human psychology and physiology and then applying it to the design has made a huge impact and people feel it when they’re in the club.”
    It has wooden furniture and sculptural decorMembers enter Remedy Place through a reception clad with walls of Venetian plaster that has dark-coloured leather seats arranged around a potted tree in the middle of the room.
    On one side of the space, a bar serving healthy snacks is positioned opposite diner-style tables with bell-shaped pendant lamps above, while wooden shelving units filled with sculptural ornaments line the walls.
    The walls are Venetian plasterOn the other side, a separate exercise room filled with yoga mats is enclosed in a glass box.
    Running around the periphery of the room are floor-to-ceiling curtains in a dark grey hue, which can be drawn to keep the room out of view from the bustling lobby.

    Frederick Tang Architecture transforms New York loft into light-filled wellness studio

    As well as offering chiropractic movement classes, the space houses everything from acupuncture baths, vitamin drips, a lymphatic infrared sauna and ice baths.
    At the core of the design is a focus on providing health and wellness services for its members in a social environment. Lounges spread across the two-storey club can be used for work, gatherings or events.
    Meanwhile, walls throughout the rest of the club are punctured by circular openings to promote interaction.
    Several lounges and seating areas are dotted throughout”Everything in the club, although you can do it by yourself, is designed to be experienced with someone else. We call it ‘social self-care’,” Leary said.
    “We believe human connection is the most important form of self-care so we offer experiences that are ‘social substitutions’,” he continued.
    “This is a new way to date, take meetings, hang out after work, have your birthday or even have a full-blown event.”
    Circular openings punctuate the wallsRemedy Place is just one of many a number of spaces that have popped up recently around the world in response to the growing demand for improved mental, spiritual or physical health.
    The Manhattan location builds on the ethos found in its West Hollywood branch, which has a similarly dark colour scheme and plush furnishings.
    Among them are Open Hearts by AB+AC Architects, a multifunctional wellness centre in Lisbon that doubles up as an artists’ residence and a lakeside retreat in Ontario by DesignAgency.
    The photography is courtesy of Remedy Place.

    Read more: More

  • in

    Patricia Urquiola creates lofty showroom for Moroso in Manhattan

    Moroso has opened a new showroom in Manhattan designed by Patricia Urquiola, marking the 70th anniversary of the Italian brand.

    The 4,300 square-foot showroom (400 square metres) has a double-height space that was previously occupied by an art gallery.
    There are spaces for meetings and officesDespite its scale, Spanish designer Patricia Urquiola sought to replicate the feeling of a home, by setting up the furniture in smaller configurations that could be seen in a living room or another intimate setting.
    The space is located at 105 Madison Avenue, in central Manhattan. It replaces the brand’s previous showroom in the SoHo neighbourhood, which opened in 2007.
    The showroom is located in New York City”The new Moroso showroom in New York transcends the concept of the exhibition space,” said the Italian brand founded in 1952 by Agostino and Diana Moroso.

    “[The showroom] introduces visitors to the company through a series of appealing domestic settings in which interiors in restrained colours heighten the appeal of the furniture on display,” Moroso added.
    Large columns were finished with handmade terracotta tilesThe team refinished the interiors with colourful pink finishes, new wooden floors and curved surfaces rather than corners.
    “The interiors are reinterpreted with an emphasis on their gently curved contours and lack of sharp angles, while particular attention is paid to colour,” said Moroso.
    The inaugural collection includes a sofa that is meant to look like moss-covered rocksLarge columns within the space were finished with shiny, handmade terracotta tiles, complementing the prevailing colour palette.
    Along the walls at the periphery of the space, Studio Urquiola created plant-filled alcoves, which help break up the space into smaller sections.
    Plant-filled alcoves line the walls of the space”Everything is studied in detail, and even the lighting is designed to make the space elegant and welcoming, while plants and niches create focal points in the different rooms,” said Moroso.
    In addition to the main exhibition space, the showroom includes a smaller mezzanine at the back, where the brand can host architects or other design professionals for meetings.

    Johnston Marklee installs villas inside industrial LA building for Holly Hunt Showroom

    The mezzanine space is divided into a lounge area, workstations and a glass structure with meeting rooms and a private office.
    A blue staircase connects this level to the ground floor and to the cellar, which has larger pieces.
    “Studio Urquiola’s architectural design alters the existing structure while maintaining its spatial characteristics, perfecting and emphasizing their soft, enveloping language with warm tones of terracotta and wood,” said Moroso.
    Patricia Urquiola also created furniture for the inaugural connectionThe inaugural collection on display at the showroom includes a sofa that is meant to look like moss-covered rocks by Sofia Lagerkvist and Anna Lindgren of Swedish design studio Front, and a series of colourful furniture that was designed by Patricia Urquiola called Pacific, which is finished in wool upholstery.
    Patricia Urquiola founded her eponymous studio in 2001, with her partner Alberto Zontone. The studio takes on architectural commissions, as well as designing furniture, products, and exhibitions.
    Other projects by the Spanish designer include the Haworth Hotel in Michigan, which was revamped to become a “design showcase” and a table with mix-matched legs for Cassina.
    The photography is by Alex Kroke unless otherwise indicated.

    Read more: More